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The longer the Revolutionary War went on, the more fluid and dynamic the "Patriot" and "Loyalist" categories became; and the larger the population became that did not fit neatly into either camp. The fort was manned by the Loyalist Royal Fencible Americans. The British forces included Loyalist units commanded by John Coffin and John Cruger (still fighting after abandoning Fort Ninety-Six.)

Loyalists now sought revenge for injuries inflicted upon them while Patriots had been in the ascendant. 1399-1404; p. 1485, See Watt, Gavin K., The Burning of the Valleys Daring Raids From Canada Against the New York Frontier in the Fall of 1780, Dundurn Press, 1997, For a full account, see Gilbert, Alan, Black Patriots and Loyalists Fighting For Emancipation in the War For Independence, University of Chicago Press, 2012, Zinn, Howard, A People's History of the United States, Harper Perennial Modern Classics, 2005, p. 88, 84th Regiment of Foot (Royal Highland Emigrants), Northern theater of the American Revolutionary War after Saratoga, Western theater of the American Revolutionary War, List of British units in the American Revolutionary War, List of Loyalist Regiments - The On-Line Institute for Advanced Loyalist Studies, United Empire Loyalists' Association of Canada (UELAC), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Loyalists_fighting_in_the_American_Revolution&oldid=983179857, Loyalist military units in the American Revolution, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 October 2020, at 18:31. To begin with, Lieutenant Colonel Archibald Campbell, in command of a British regiment, two Hessian regiments, four Loyalist battalions and artillery, was dispatched to Georgia.

h�bbd```b``���@$SXd1�L�� ����z`RD�(�ٖ`R���v����`�(Y:H2�Ճ�Iy@��e&�Kށ���H���q�� Q�D Now the civil war in the South widened. By the end of 1776, about eighteen hundred Loyalist soldiers had been recruited, most from Long Island, Staten Island, and Westchester County.

Instead, the Loyalists faced the Patriot regulars, and the British attacked the inexperienced Patriot militia, routing them, exposing the Patriot flank, and causing the collapse and total rout of the whole Patriot army. The sacking of New Haven gave birth to a Yale legend. Another famous loyalist was Joseph Galloway who was the Pennsylvania delegate to the Continental Congress but later worked for the British army. The pro-Loyalist tradition in Canada has been summed up by an American historian: "Many Canadians believe that their nation's traditional devotion to law and civility, the very essence of being a Canadian, traces back to being loyal, as in Loyalist."

They moved so fast that they captured a thousand Patriot muskets, four hundred barrels of gunpowder, seven members of the House of Burgesses, and very nearly, Jefferson himself. Another famous loyalist was Joseph Galloway who was the Pennsylvania delegate to the Continental Congress but later worked for the British army. The treaty said, in article 7, that the British were to leave the United States "without ... carrying away any Negroes". This policy was energetically pursued. [84], As to the Loyalists who remained within the United States, Loyalists were a minority in every state and in most communities. [3] It is estimated that between 20-45% of the population were somewhere in the middle as "Trimmers' or neutrals who bent with the wind.

[49] On one occasion, the Associated Loyalists seized a well-known Patriot leader, Joshua Huddy. This would be about sixteen percent of the total population, or about 20 percent of Americans of European origin. On August 16, 1777, the British column was met by a large Patriot force under John Stark. One is Washington and Caesar by Christian Cameron, which tells the story of a black Loyalist fighting in the British forces. The Loyalists thought that the Patriots were panicking, as they had at Camden. Many of the senior British officers in North America refused to comply with article 7. Thus, the King's Royal Regiment of New York, Butler's Rangers, Jessup's Corps, the King's Rangers and Joseph Brant's Iroquois got land in what is now Ontario; part of de Lancey's brigade, the Pennsylvania Loyalists, the King's American Dragoons, the New Jersey Volunteers, the Royal Fencible Americans, the Orange Rangers and others were given land in what is now New Brunswick. Thus they included many Anglicans (Episcopalians) in the North East, many tenant farmers in New York and people of Dutch origin in New York and New Jersey, many of the German population of Pennsylvania, some Quakers, most of the Highland Scots in the South, and many Iroquois Indians. Son of a wealthy family, Brown had in the summer of 1775 been confronted by a group of Patriots who demanded that he swear allegiance to the revolutionary cause. In early 1776, under the command of Brigadier General Donald Macdonald, a substantial force of North Carolina Loyalists, possibly as many as five thousand, began a march to the seacoast to join a British assault on Charleston. Ferguson had nine hundred Loyalist troops, made up of Southern militia and detachments from three Northern units--the King's American Rangers, the Queen's Rangers and the New Jersey Volunteers. This success did much to hearten backwoods Patriots in the aftermath of so many British successes. A number of influential Loyalists in northern New York quickly set to work building military forces. This was a tactical British victory with huge losses, which made it clear that British power in the South was waning. In the Battle of Ramsour's Mill, North Carolina, on June 20, 1780, the combatants on both sides were untrained militia, few if any in uniform. (Others went to the Eastern Townships in Quebec.) Loyalists seized Richard Stockton, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, and after imprisonment and cruel treatment, he broke down, and signed an oath of allegiance to George III. Large numbers of Iroquois Indians were recruited to the British side by the Mohawk leader Joseph Brant (Thayendenegea).[12]. The Loyalists hanged Huddy, leaving him swinging with a message pinned to his breast, reading in part "... Up goes Huddy for Philip White."[50]. A prominent historian called this "... the most desperate engagement of the war in terms of the proportion of casualties to men involved on each side". 0 Colonel Tye, so-called by the British, then founded a unit which the British called the Black Brigade. The British called these "provincial" regiments. John Graves Simcoe, commander of the Queen's Rangers, became the Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada (Ontario), and the city of Brantford, Ontario is named for the Loyalist Indian leader Joseph Brant. More than half the Patriots in the battle were killed or wounded, and Loyalist casualties were very high. After a long, bloody struggle the Patriots retreated.

But that was all they were permitted to do, prior to the British evacuation of the city.

The dying Herkimer propped himself against a tree and continued to command his troops in a battle which saw very heavy losses on both sides. After the Loyalist force surrendered, the frontiersmen fired point-blank into a mass of Loyalist prisoners, killing nearly a hundred of them. Some loyalists left the colonies and headed back to Britain.

After the Revolution, Loyalists and their descendants, prudently, rarely drew attention to themselves. (Other African-Americans fought on the Patriot side, for the same motive). In the ensuing battle, many of the Loyalist, French Canadian and Indian positions were quickly overrun, and the defenders fled or were captured. An American historian has estimated that about 450,000 Americans remained loyal to Britain during the Revolution.

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